Earth, Ash, and Blood: The Unlikely Components of a Nutritious Diet (Part 1)

I have always been fascinated by the incredibly strange things that people have learned to eat through time in order to extract the maximum amount of nutrition from even the most desolate of environments.  

And, it has been rewarding to repeatedly attempt to shed myself of my inherent cultural biases that defines “normalcy” in my diet and try to contextualize why people eat what they do.  To step outside of our comfort zones to try to truly see other dietary practices from an emic, or insider perspective is difficult, considering our perception of food and the place it holds in our lives are so intricately intertwined with everything that we are and everything that we do.  But, when we are able to do this successfully, so many aspects of other people’s dietary practices take on entirely new meanings!

The Search for the Ash Yogurt

Sue Dave Delia Shark.png

Several months ago I met Dave and Sue Brown and Delia Stirling at David Ascher’s Traditional Cheese Making course in Iceland.  After spending a week together and learning about all of the things we have in common - from our love of traditional raw milk cheese to foraging to ancient stone tool technology - they invited me and my family to visit them in Kenya where they operate Brown’s Cheese and spend time working with traditional groups to learn about their contemporary foodways still based on ancestral practices.  After I returned home and mentioned this to my family we jumped at the opportunity - and, I am so incredibly glad we did!

Ash Yogurt being poured for us in a village in West Pokot

Ash Yogurt being poured for us in a village in West Pokot

Preparation for our visit required months and Delia took on the majority of the planning herself.  It was during this time that I kept stressing to her my desire to learn about mursik, a traditional yogurt made with ash in the West Pokot County of Kenya and, if at all possible I also wanted to experience the blood-letting practice of the pastoralists such as the Samburu.  After much work, Delia devised an itinerary that would accomplish all that I wanted and also included the added bonuses of camping in the bush and multiple safaris at Lewa House!  We were all in, and the next few months seemed to drag on forever as we anxiously anticipated our adventure to begin.


We started our journey to Kenya after a short visit to Johannesburg where I was presenting at the 2018 ACE, the first Experimental Archaeology Conference held in Africa. Despite the multiple flights, layover in Ethiopia, and hour-long drive to Brown’s Cheese from the Nairobi airport, our expedition to find people producing mursik was just beginning.  After one day’s rest we woke up early and drove an hour in the dark through pouring rain to Wilson Airport where we boarded a small, propeller plane and flew to the more remote area of Kitale.  There we were greeted by our driver, Samuel who would unexpectedly would also later turn out be be our guide. 

Ready to fly

As we sat around Cranes Haven Lodge that evening discussing the research plan for the next day that Delia had arranged with Slow Food Kenya, Samuel overheard us and suggested we travel to the lowlands, further and deeper into the West Pokot area to find people less influenced by modern western diets.   There, he told us, we would find what we were searching for - people still actively engaged in production and consumption of mursik because they still relied upon it as an important component of their daily diets.  And, he assured us that we could also learn how to make traditional honey wine and how the people of West Pokot slaughter and butcher goats and eat their small intestines raw.  This sounded great!  However, it was already 10:00 pm and didn’t know how we would make it all work on such short notice.  With cell phone in hand, Samuel calmly replied that he knew people and could make it happen.  He just needed our go-ahead to “activate his network” to make it happen.  “Activating his network” cost us a little more than we anticipated (and included the purchase of two goats!), but it was worth it because thanks to Samuel and his network, the next day was better than we ever could have ever imagined.

Bill and Samuel working on "activiting his network" at Cranes Haven Lodge

Bill and Samuel working on "activiting his network" at Cranes Haven Lodge

The wonderful Cranes Haven Crew!

The wonderful Cranes Haven Crew!

Setting off to Find Mursik

The day started as planned and, after driving a couple of hours we met with the Kenya Slow Food International representative, Sampson, at the Horizon Hotel who took us to the Tarsoi Village for our first mursik experience of the day.  Sampson explained to us that the Tarsoi Village is actually made up of two separate village, the Tartar and Soibei whose names combine to make Tarsoi (sort of like Benifer - Ben Affleck and Jennifer Garner - but longer lasting...). The drive from the hotel to the village was much shorter than I expected.  However, since the paved road quickly changed to dirt and the rectangular concrete block buildings became round wattle and daub thatched structures the scene quickly met our expectations. We parked the cars and waiting for someone to come greet us my sight focused on the fence like metal contraption whose purpose it was to funnel cows into a narrow concrete shallow pool filled with some sort of disinfecting liquid meant to sterilize their legs, bellies and udders.  I thought it out of place for a village that we spent so much time and effort getting to in order to learn more about traditional diets.


We heard them from a distance before we saw them… the sound of the singing and the bells and then the bright colored clothing and the dancing.  

Being greeted by members of the Tarsoi Village

Being greeted by members of the Tarsoi Village


It looked as though the entire village was coming to greet us.  Over the next 20 minutes, through the magic of music and dance, we were transformed from spectators into participants.  

Joining in

Introductions in the Tarsoi Village

We were then escorted to an open grassy area where the villagers had brought a couch from one of their homes for us to sit.  As they gathered around one of them led us in an obligatory prayer.  Then, through the help of an interpreter, the chairman told us the story of the Tarsoi, welcomed us, and thanked god for the kromwo tree, the tree that they burn to obtain the ash to make the mursik, for the medicinal value it brings to them.  Afterward he also thanked the milk for the medicinal value it brings them.  Then he thanked Slow Food because of them, he said, they have been to Italy to show people in other parts of the world how to make the mursik.  Finally, he asked us to go around and introduce ourselves and for each of us to let everyone know why we were there.   Only after we had become a part of the process through the ritual of music, dance and prayer and introduction were they ready to share with us their traditional food, mursik.

The Traditional Process Revealed

We were brought into a small, round, wattle and daub kitchen with a compact dirt floor.  There, three women were huddled around a small fire burning in the hearth.  One held the end of a stick in the fire until the tip was glowing red.  She then stuck the charred end into the gourd all the way to the base and scraped it up along the inside to the top with more pressure than I would have expected.  


This resulted in leaving a black streak of ash behind in its path.  This scraping motion was repeated once or twice and then the stick was returned to the fire until it once again glowed red.  The stick was then placed inside the gourd and the scraping motion resumed for a stroke or two.  The repeated scraping inside the gourd and burning in the fire continued until the entire inside of the gourd was coated with black ash.  Excess ashes were shaken out and then the gourd was filled with cows milk.  Immediately, the ash coating inside the gourd changed the bluish/white color of the milk to a speckled grey.  A lid made from the cut-off end of the gourd that utilized a coiled natural cordage twined base that fit snugly over the base was placed on top, and the gourd was set aside to ferment.  As soon as the gourd was set down, indicating the end of the process, I began to bombard them with questions...thankfully they were so incredibly generous and patient with their answers.

This is what I learned:

Notes in Kitchen
Drinking yogurt
  1. The ash is essential to the process because a) it imparts a flavor and the mursik simply does not taste right without it, b) it changes the color and look and the mursik does not look right without it, and c) it provides a medicinal value since it is basic versus the acidity of the fermented milk.
  2. The stick they burned and used to scrape the inside of the gourd they called “kromwo” its genus and species is Ozoroa insignis.  They insisted that the mursik can only be make from a stick from this tree, however, they could not tell me why other than it, “has different properties” and the fact that it forms theproper coal.  In the few instances they can recall not being able to obtain a stick from the kromwo tree they substituted with wood from a native olive tree.  I assume this is the tamiyai or, Olea africana.  
  3. Once the gourd is filled they set it aside to ferment for anywhere from 3 days to 3 months depending on several factors including how much surplus milk they have.  Typically, once the gourd is filled and the milk has fermented for at least three days it is ready to drink.  Before it is consumed the gourd is shaken.  After consumption, the gourd is refilled with new milk and, because the residue from the previous mursik is still alive and active with strong bacterias that were built up during the fermentation process the fermentation of the new milk will only take a day or two!
  4. The milk they used was pasteurized.  Wait, what?  As soon as I heard this Delia and I immediately shot a look at one another.  We are both cheesemakers who deal with raw milk and utilize traditional methods and understand what this means and how dangerous it is.  Raw milk is naturally full of the active bacteria that produces the fermentation.  When the fermentation begins through this process the pH drops and kills off harmful pathogens in the process.  However, the pasteurization process does not discriminate between good and bad bacteria and kills it all leaving behind a blank slate.  There is nothing there to initiate the fermentation nor any good bacteria left to fight harmful pathogens.  That is why modern cheesemakers using pasteurized cheese MUST add a culture of bacteria to the milk to begin the fermentation.  Blank slates such as these are easily colonized by harmful bacteria that have nothing stopping them from taking over and creating a very dangerous situation.  
A picture with the village elders before we left to meet a tribe in the Low Lands of West Pokot

A picture with the village elders before we left to meet a tribe in the Low Lands of West Pokot

Into the Lowlands

Other than a nagging, uneasy feeling over their use of pasteurized milk, I felt I accomplished what I set out to do - see mursik production, taste/experience mursik, and observe how mursik production and consumption is influenced by and is an important part of their culture. Nevertheless, Samuel was urging us to say goodbye and load up in the vehicles quickly to provide us enough time to drive all the way to the lowlands.  His promise of an even more traditional mursik experience was romantic and we followed his advice, thanked everyone for sharing such an important part of their lives with us and left.  

The drive was the scariest automotive experience . . . straight drop here with no guard rail

The drive was the scariest automotive experience . . . straight drop here with no guard rail

The drive was fact, it was the hottest, bumpiest, scariest drive I have ever experienced anywhere in the world!  Recent intense and persistent rains had washed out the sandy dirt roads and our descent down the side of the mountain was risky.  There was no guard rail and not much left of the road.  I was seated right next to the window on the side of the vehicle closest to the edge and, with a clear few of the shear several thousand foot drop and there more than a few times I thought we were going off the road - and there was no chance whatsoever of surviving.  I wondered if this was the right choice and what kind of father I was to put my family in this sort of danger.  For what?  We had already experienced the mursik.  Was it worth it to go this far to witness something a little more traditional?  I seriously wondered if my family was going to survive this experience but it was too late to turn back.  Stopping and attempting to turn around would have been more dangerous than just continuing down the mountain.  We were committed.

Goats on road

Eventually, after almost three hours of descending down the mountain we reached the lowlands and the roads flattened out.  The dirt roads were not in any better shape, but at least we no longer faced the danger of falling down the escarpment.  A while later we turned off the road and drove into the bush eventually stopping at the entrance to a village.


And again, we heard it before we saw it - the villagers came out to greet us with song and dance!

Being greeted Tribe 2

The songs were different, but the enthusiasm the same.  

We were all quickly surrounded and, through hand and eye gestures invited to participate.  Once we did we worked our way as a group through the gate. The singing and dancing lasted for about 20 minutes and seemed like every person in the surrounding area participated.  It wasn’t until the music stopped that I realized I was mistaken. 

greeting tribe 2
Meeting the Chief

Our driver-turned-guide, Samuel, approached me and pointed out the man in the distance - the single person not participating.  He was laying on a rawhide mat in the shade of a tree with his head resting on a carved wooden headrest.  There was a look on his face of complete indifference and he refused to make eye contact with any of us.  I thought it strange that with all of the festivities - singing and dancing and laughing - that he was positioned where he was in an almost angry state. Samuel informed me that this is Kadel, the head man and that it is my responsibility to go to him and introduce myself before he would acknowledge any of us.  As Samuel, Jason and I walked over Kadel remained steadfast with his eyes seemingly focused on something in the distance.  Whatever he was looking at was not us.  I spoke first and, and through Samuel, thanked him for allowing us to visit him and his people.  A moment passed and then he spoke as Samuel translated.  Kadel asked me to introduce myself and to tell him why we had come - which I did.  As Samuel tried to keep up with my enthusiastic response I told Kadel what I did and all about the Food Evolutions Project and the Eastern Shore Food Lab at Washington College that I was building and how excited I was to learn more about the mursik at a level that would allow me to inform others of this important food that is so integral to the health and well-being of his people in West Pokot.  I wished to develop strategies where I could adapt the approach to make something similar with the resources local to the Eastern Shore of Maryland while meeting the requirements of the local food health and safety standards - an almost insurmountable task unless the process is fully understood. 


When I finished, he stood up and approached me.  My eyes caught the ring knife he wore on the ring finger of his left hand.  I had never seen anything like it before and the intense sun reflected off of the polished metal surface making it look even more ominous.  I didn’t know what to expect, but as he approached me he generously reached out his right hand to greet me and we shook.  At that moment everything changed - a smile came across his face and his eyes brightened.  We began to joke and laugh and I brought him over to introduce him to my family and the rest of the group. 


Our 1st Taste . . . Honey Wine 

The rest of the visit was incredible.  We started by drinking honey wine made with the sausage tree fruit to celebrate our visit and, of course there was ritual associated with this practice as well.  One man was in control of the gourd that contained the honey wine and how the wine was distributed.  After removing the plug of branches and leaves that kept the flies out of the wine he spread them out on the ground.  He filled a long, thin bottle gourd with wine and, then, before drinking any wine whatsoever, he ceremoniously sprinkled drops on the ground as an offering to the ancestors.  Then, he began to pass the gourd around to drink.  The first recipient, my 10-year old daughter, Alyssa who was taken aback both by the opportunity to drink alcohol and the bits of dead bees and bee parts, wax, and sticks floating on the surface.  After a few awkward glances she took an obligatory sip and passed the gourd along. Contrary to her experience we all enjoyed the honey wine, some perhaps too much! And, with the added benefit of the social lubrication offered by the honey wine we proceeded to learn how they make their traditional mursik.


They prepared the gourd in a very similar fashion at the Tarsoi, except, that it is first rinsed with cow urine and then scraped with a burning end of a stick also from the Kromwo tree.  However, the biggest difference is that they fill the gourd with raw milk and set it aside to ferment.
 Typically, it is consumed around the 3-7 day mark, however, when there is a surplus it is set aside to ferment for much longer period, sometimes for over 6 months and is known as cheposoyo.  It loses quite a bit of moisture over this period and becomes more like cheese than yogurt.  During times of huger a spoonful of the concentrated cheposoyo is mixed with water and drank.  Two servings of this is sometimes the only food consumed each day!

Ladies making yogurt

Then they offered us several month old mursik made from raw goat’s milk - it was amazing!  The flavors and textures were complex but welcome.  There was absolutely no off or strong taste and even the kids went back for seconds!  It is hard to believe that the only ingredients were ash and raw milk fermented in a gourd cleaned with cow urine!

So...after my short but intense experiences with Mursik this is my take:

Bill drinking yogurt with Chief
  1. The ash in “ash yogurt” isn't ash after all, but rather charcoal
  2. They are not making yogurt, but instead clabber
  3. After watching the process of coating the inside of the gourd with ash/charcoal I think there is a possibility that the practice of using the burned stick to add ash/charcoal to the fermenting milk was not initially for dietary or medicinal purposes.  

Certainly, the presence of the ash/charcoal impacted the flavor, texture, and presentation (look) of the mursik, introduces important minerals to their diet and, it provides medicinal value, but I think something the practice provides which is more basic that has nothing to do with the ash/charcoal is why they first started to do it and continue to this day - the heat of the burning coal cleans the gourd and gets rid of unwanted pathogens.  And, this is why - after watching the process several times, I was struck as how often the stick is returned to the fire until the end is glowing red.  Then, the stick is used to scrape the inside of the gourd only a couple times before it is returned to the fire to burn some more.  This repeated returning to the fire only to scrape a couple times is more than necessary to produce enough ash/charcoal to sufficiently coat the inside of the gourd.  Every time they stuck the stick in the gourd smoke escaped out the opening revealing just how hot the stick actually is!  Also, the inside of the gourds are somewhat rough and porous and I believe a combination of the heat and the pressure they use when they scrape helps the “fibers” of the inside of the gourd compress resulting in a smoother surface and, perhaps the ash/charcoal fill some of the pores. 

If this is correct, then over time the flavor, texture, and look of the mursik would become the standard and requirements for “proper” mursik.  It simply would taste right, or look right, or have the right mouth feel without it.  However, if the addition of the ahs/charcoal was only for dietary or medicinal purposes why not just directly add the ash/charcoal into the milk?

The kids with all our new friends in the Village!

The kids with all our new friends in the Village!

Of course something has to happen on a plane ride . . . 

Walking with Governor

The next day as we boarded the tiny plane in Kitale to return to Nairobi I proudly clutched the gourd that had held the 3-month old goat milk mursik beautifully decorated with cowry shells I received from Kadel the day before.  And, it was that gourd that the four impeccably dressed men who boarded the plane with us noticed and prompted them to ask us who we were and what we were doing.  Taken aback, I explained all about the Food Evolutions project and the Eastern Shore Food Lab to, who is turns out, were the West Pokot Governor, Chief of Staff and two other government officials travelling to Nairobi on government business.  They were excited about what we were doing, why we were doing it and so thrilled to share their traditional food practices with the outside world!  When we landed in Nairobi we exchanged contact information and they invited us back and hoped I would bring Washington College students next time! 


Wait till you see our next stop in Kenya!

Blood Milk

Stay tuned for the next blog from Africa . . .

Here's a hint to see what we drank with the Somburu!!


Connecting over Bone Broth

Almost exactly a year ago, I boarded a WOW Air flight in BWI bound for Reykjavik, Iceland.  This was the first leg of an almost two-week long food research trip I had been anticipating for months. The first ten days were to be spent at the Italian Culinary Institute where I was enrolled in a Traditional Italian Salumi and Charcuterie course.  This would be my first professional culinary training.  Afterward, I was bound for Copenhagen where I had meetings lined up at the Nordic Food Lab, one of the primary sources of original inspiration for the Eastern Shore Food Lab.  Despite my excitement for what lie in store for me, as the plane taxied toward the runway my mind was laser focused on how I would spend the next six and a half hours on my flight . . .  getting lost in the brand-new book that arrived at my doorstop from Amazon the day before.

Check out Bill's research for the Eastern Shore Food Lab


On the plane I was seated near an emergency exit so there was only one other seat in my aisle – an ideal setting for reading and not being disturbed.  I was so focused on my book that I had no interaction with the man seated next to me save for the obligatory nod as I had taken my seat a few minutes earlier.  And, why would I?  Over the past few years I have flown extensively and what I used to view as an opportunity to relax, binge watch movies, or even talk to the people around me I now saw as an opportunity sit in my own little word and catch up on work.  It had literally been years since I was engaged in a conversation with a stranger on a plane.  No, I would be lost in my book for the entire trip.

The book that sparked the "Chef" question

The book that sparked the "Chef" question

The author of the book in my hands was Christian Puglisis, formerly a sous chef at NOMA and currently the owner/chef of a progressive and ethically sound restaurant in Copenhagen, RELÆ that bears the same name as his book.  This book was written in the same style as other progressive chefs have been writing lately – part cookbook, part interconnected essays, and part philosophy on food. 

As I began to read through the pages, I realized the book was turning out to be incredibly inspiring to me.  I am in the midst of developing the Eastern Shore Food Lab at Washington College and I really connected with Puglisis’s desire to create something that really supported his ethical stance on food.  I glared at the gorgeous photographs of foods I could only dream of creating that made use of all sorts of uber-local and under-utilized ingredients.  More importantly, I poured through the pages and learned about how he created his restaurant from nothing in a previously impoverished and crime ridden part of Copenhagen, and how his work help to support a rebirth in that community.  As I read on, I dreamed about how what the college was building with in the Eastern Shore Food Lab would help bring knowledge, health, and inspiration to not only our students but the larger Eastern Shore community by empowering them to take control of their food and diet.

All of a sudden, I was interrupted and shaken from my day dream . . . 

Cooking with Billy

“Are you a chef?” the man next to me asked. 

I looked up from my book and muttered, “huh?” shocked that he had spoken to me and wondering why he asked if I was a chef.  When he saw the surprise in my expression he motioned to the cookbook in my hands and asked again, “are you a chef?”  I have been passionate about cooking since I was a child, devoured every episode of Julia Child on a black and white television set, bought practically every cookbook that Amazon ever suggested, and spent a tremendous amount of time in the field hunting and gathering and in the kitchen preparing food for my family.  But, unfortunately, none of those things qualified me to call myself a chef.  So, I quickly answered, “no” and returned to my book. 

A moment later I felt very uncomfortable with my abrupt answer.  It was too short and in no way did it adequately capture who I was and the journey I was one.  Nor, most importantly, did it relay what I was doing reading this particular book and why it was so important to me.  So, I closed the book, turned to the man seated next to me, and began to tell him all about archaeology, experimental archaeology, ancestral foodways, nutrient density and the Eastern Shore Food Lab.  This is a spiel I have given before.  Unfortunately, I don’t have the elevator speech version down and don’t know if I ever will (or if I every should).  It’s all too complicated, too important, too intertwined to distil down to a few sentence description.  I would often see the life getting sucked out of the recipient of my long-winded description of how we have been processing food for millions of years and how that impacted biological and cultural evolution and, why it is so important to understand all of that if we are to improve our modern diets and health. 


The typical response from whoever was unfortunate enough to receive my impassioned tirade, if they lasted long enough, was a polite nod before they found another person to talk to OR, if they were stuck with me, changed the topic. But, my response from the man seated next to me on this plane was different.  There was a thoughtful look on his face. 

He smiled, reached out his hand, and said, “That’s fascinating.  My name is Konrad Knops.  And, my business partner and I just started a bone broth company in Germany called, Brox.  Please, tell me more about what you are doing.”

Over the next five hours we were engaged in one of the most meaningful conversations about food I have ever had!


He told me about his business, Urban Health whose focus is on holistic health and longevity.  He told me how he began to prepare and provide his clientele with bone broth because of all of the nutritional and health benefits it possessed and how the demand was so great that he and his business partner, Jin-Woo Bae, decided to start Brox.  In fact, the reason he was sitting here next to me was because he returning home from a research trip to Brodo in New York City. 


Brodo was launched in 2014 when Chef Marco Canora, who had recently witnessed the benefits of bone broth after regaining his own health, repurposed a street-front window off the side of his restaurant, Hearth, as a place from which to sell cups of bone broth.  The demand was high and it didn’t take long to see the pedestrians’ in the lower east side of Manhattan transform the contents of the cups in their hands from coffee to bone broth.  The success and attention that Brodo attracted along with his cookbook, Brodo: a bone broth cookbook, really helped fuel the bone broth craze in America that was taking place.  Today, in addition to shipping all over the country, Chef Marco still maintains his, “Brodo Window,” and now has a broth shop in the West Village and has even partnered with the NYU Langone Medical Center to supply new mothers in the maternity ward with nutrient dense bone broth!  I was very familiar with Brodo.  I had been cooking out of Chef Canora’s book for months by the time I met Konrad and had dragged Christina to visit the Brodo bone broth window the earlier spring for our own bone broth pilgrimage.  It was the perfect place for Konrad to visit as he built his bone broth business.


Konrad and I talked about health, diet, tradition, prehistory, and how politics and the modern healthcare system have impacted our health.  We talked about what a healthy diet truly means and how the United States and Europe and many other places in the world were facing the same diet and health problems.  We talked about how to empower people to take back control of their food and diet.  The dialogue was so intense and meaningful that I didn’t want the flight to end because that would also mean an end to the conversation. 


When we landed in Reykjavík, I invited Konrad to visit the Eastern Shore Food Lab when we are up and running so that he could see what we are buiding and suggested that it would be great if Konrad could conduct a workshop for students and the community and also give a presentation at the college.  And, Konrad invited me to visit Brox, his bone broth operation in Berlin.  Both invitations were entirely genuine, but, I was skeptical that we would ever see one another again. 


Conversations this intense and meaningful transport those engaged in them to a temporary alternative universe of sorts where they temporarily escape from the responsibilities and pressures of real life.  That is part of the beauty of them. 


However, invitations and plans made during these altered states run the risk of never being realized once real life sets back in.  Konrad and I shook hands as we departed the plane - he continued on to Germany and I caught a connecting flight to Copenhagen.  

Fast-forward 1 year to our family living in Ireland

Over the next year as I continued to experiment with my own various bone broth recipes at home and I began to realize what an important component it would make to the Eastern Shore Food Lab.  I never forgot Konrad’s invitation and included it on every draft of what I wanted to accomplish through the Food Evolutions Project during my sabbatical.    Nine months after our original meeting I sent an email to Konrad to reestablish contact and inquired whether or not his offer still stood.  His reply was an empathic, “Yes!” and we started planning a visit.

I had contacted him in the fall and he was in the midst of getting ready for the winter season - certainly the busiest time of year for piping hot, nutrient-dense bone broth.  However, between opening up several new seasonal pop-up bone broth outlets in locations such as Berlin, Hamburg and Vienna, and even appearing on German television show, Cave of Lions (the German version of Shark Tank) he found time to communicate with me and schedule an amazing day for us in Berlin that allowed me to accomplish everything I was looking to do in the visit.

Ryan Air

My friend and colleague, Jason O’Brien, joined my family and I for the trip.  Jason’s interest in connecting people with their heritage and health through food with his company, Odaios Foods, certainly got him excited about visiting Konrad and seeing what he is doing with bone broth.  So, the six of us caught a super cheap RyanAir flight to Berlin and met Konrad at their store and office at Urban Health on Goethestraße to begin our whirlwind day.  Here we met Konrad’s friend and business partner, Jin Woo-Bae, and toured the very place where Brox started.  We saw the rooms where they saw patients and the small kitchen where they cooked the bone broth to nourish them.  We saw the room where they came up with the idea for the business. We learned how this labor of love was connected to his entire family.  It just so happens that Konrad’s parents are both incredibly talented artists and, in addition to the various artwork they created that is located throughout all of the twists and turns of his office, they have applied their talents to help with advertising initiatives.  His mother even designed the incredible cardboard cow that holds six jars of the broth complete with a handle on top.  In fact, everyone around Konrad and Jin seem to be dedicated to making sure this initiative is successful which speaks volumes to how much everyone believes in what they are doing.  It was here in the office that I began to ask the barrage of questions that have been compiling since I first met Konrad.  And, they even though my questions continued all day he answered each and every one of them patiently. 

Bill, Jason, Konrad and Jin with Brox Broth in the cardboard cow carrier

Bill, Jason, Konrad and Jin with Brox Broth in the cardboard cow carrier

Off on a Fermentation Adventure Around Berlin

Getting pretzels

We left his office and were off to the next stop on our whirlwind tour – to see one of the most important fermenters in Germany, Markus Shimizu.  To get there, Konrad arranged for us to take the Number 100 bus so that we would be able to have a short “sightseeing” tour of some of the important spots in Berlin, including the Bundeskanzleramt, or the German “White House” which houses chancellor, Angela Merkel.  And, of course, we made sure to sit on the top level of the bus to get the best view!

In front of the German Government building

Right at home with the bubbling jars

When we entered the home of Markus Skimizu of Mimi ferments there was an instant connection.  I recognized the fermenting vessels of all shapes and sizes that adorned the various rooms in the house.  I recognized the overflowing industrial fridge that contained bottles of his completed ferments.  And, I recognized the passion he has for what he is doing.  Different ferments, but the same set up as that which exists in my home.


Bubbling jars


Even though they were preparing for a children’s birthday party that was to take place in their house in a few hours, Markus dropped everything he was doing to give us a full blown tour of a sort of fermentation for which I know very little about – soy sauce, koji, miso, natto and tempeh.  Over the course of the next hour he showed us how he is relying upon traditional fermentation strategies that not only transform the taste and texture of foods but also the nutrient content, quality and density of foods.  It was all fascinating, and, most importantly, he does not restrict himself to solely using traditional raw ingredients.  Instead, he experiments with applying these transformative food processing strategies to a variety of local, European, local ingredients.  And, we got to taste it all!  We tried scores of different soy sauces made from ingredients that ranged from egg whites to naked barley. 


The guys!

It is an understatement to say that we left Markus inspired to experiment with not only new forms of fermentation but also with the application of tradition techniques on all sorts of new ingredients.

Soy Sauces

Time to Taste the Broth!


The next stop on our whirlwind food tour of Berlin the was Konrad and Jin’s own pop-up store in Berlin.  This Brox pop-up was located in a closed down seasonal ice cream parlor that instead of cold ice-cream served warm, delicious, nutrient-dense broth in 100% compostable cups in the winter – it was brilliant!  Their menu was simple – the pop up offered three different broths (beef made from the bones of organic, grass-fed cows; chicken made from organic, free-range chickens; or organic, vegan-friendly mushroom) each served in two different ways.  Konrad prepared each and every one for us to sample.  They were all delicious and, perhaps what surprised me the most, also beautiful! 


veggie broth

They have realized that modern diners have modern expectations of taste, texture and presentation and when they developed their menu took the time to not only create incredible recipes that adhere to their strict ethical principles, but also paid attention to presentation.  Also realizing the nutritional and sustainable aspects of entomophagy (insect consumption) there is the option to include a grasshopper with your cup of broth!  We tasted all of the offering and, while each of us had our favorites, we certainly enjoyed them all!  The feeling we all had after drinking their broth was intensely satisfying, yet not overpowering at the same time. 

Certainly, drinking something warm on a cold winter day as we traipsed around Berlin would comfort anyone.  But, there was something more. The level of taste and presentation that they achieved as a result of their intensive development was amazing.  But it was also the thought that went into all of it – the signage detailing why bone broth is important to human health and their strict adherence to the guiding principles that got them started down this road in the first place are simultaneously comforting and connective.  Who could imagine that drinking a cup of bone broth in a compostable paper cup in a closed down ice cream parlor could be so meaningful?  Well, it was.

The Schindlers with Konrad
Jason, Konrad and Bill with "thank you" presents of Old Bay from Maryland and Whiskey from Ireland!

Jason, Konrad and Bill with "thank you" presents of Old Bay from Maryland and Whiskey from Ireland!

Next Fermentation Stop - A Brewery!


We left the Brox pop-up with our bellies and souls satiated to head off to our last stop – BRLO Brewhouse ( ).  BRLO is housed in a container complex made almost entirely of shipping containers!  It can be relatively easily assembled, taken down, and re-assembled.  Given BRLO is a temporary pop-up designed to last between 3-5 years, this style of construction was a perfect solution.  Germany has both incredible beers and a rich beer tradition; however, the microbrew phenomenon that I am used to in the United States is in its infancy here in Germany.  That makes BRLO even more unique!  BRLO is the Slavic origin of the name Berlin and this pop-up is the result of a cooperative effort between brewers, Katharina, Christian and Michael, who are contributing their innovation to the German craft beer movement and, head chef, Ben Pommer who is working hard to re-envision brewpub food. 

We were all taken on a tour of the brewery which began with a description of the philosophies of both the brewery and the restaurant.  Throughout the tour we were engaged with all of our senses that included the sweet smell of the wort, the feel of the hot steam eminating from the tanks, and the taste of the various types of barley’s that go into their beers.  The tour ended with each of us filling glasses of beer directly from their fermentation tanks!  Later, Chef Ben worked miracles and moved mountains to find us a table in his adjacent busy restaurant.  Over the course of the next hour and a half we experienced everything that BRLO Brewhouse stands for by literally tasting their philosophies through the beer and food that comprised our meal.

Fresh pour
Pouring his own beer

Konrad had truly organized for us an amazing day filled with meeting passionate people doing inspiring things with food!


We all learned so much.  Throughout the day, I asked Konrad about how he got started, and specific questions about his recipes, and about the nutritional benefits of bone broth.  I learned so much from Konrad about how to turn what you believe in into something that can bring pleasure and health to others.   I learned what it looks like to brilliantly transform something as ancient and basic as bone broth into something that both tastes and looks incredible.  I also learned some of the finer points of how to make bone broth healthy, nutritious, and desirable.  Their focus at Brox is on a producing a high quality, nutrient dense product.  Each and every step they take in the production of their broth is focused on creating the most nutrient dense product possible.  At Bone Brox they use only bones from the finest organic, free-range animals raised by farmers they know. They break up the bones into small pieces to increase the surface area so that they can release the maximum amount of nutrients more easily.  They roast the bones first  (for the flavor), and then they put them into cold water with some apple vinegar before they make the stock to further help aid in the release of minerals in the water.  And, they use a special filter for the water that helps return it to as close to its original state as possible which prepares it to carry the maximum amount of nutrients.  The final step in their quest for nutrient dense broth is to simmer the bones for a minimum of 18 hours to extract to most amount of minerals, collagen and flavor.  They don’t add the vegetables until the end of the process to avoid introducing undue bitterness.  This illustrates how every decision they have made, each and every step of the process, was to create the most amazing, nutrient dense product possible.  They do not cut corners for the sake of saving money.  The cornerstone of their business is to create something they can stand behind. 

Iceland Cheesemaking

Each and every step of their process is entirely accessible to the home chef.  It is empowering to know that every one of us can seek out bones from high quality animals and create an amazing product by following the same steps, in our stock pots, on our stovetops.  It is comforting to know, however, that for those of us that do not have the time or desire to make our own bone broth, we can support people like Konrad and Jin by purchasing high-quality, nutrient dense foods done properly.  An informed consumer is a powerful force.

Food is so incredibly connected to every aspect of life – from the physical and biological (health, diet, disease, sustainability) to the cultural (tradition, politics, religion, ethical, connection, addiction, financial) – that is why a true conversation about food is so incredibly difficult to have.  However, when you can find common ground in a genuine conversation about food it is intense and meaningful and conveys so many other important aspects of who we are and how we view the world.  A meaningful conversation about food provided the opportunity for Konrad and I to first meet and, also provided the backdrop that created the opportunity to bring my family and Jason to meet Konrad in Berlin.  It also allowed Konrad to make the contacts he has made with community of people in Berlin that are changing the food scene in Berlin. 

The saying is so true: Food Is Life. 

But it is even more true here – food is engrained in all aspects of life.  And when you can really connect through food, even through something as basic as bone broth – the possibilities are limitless!  

Talk to that stranger next to you – just make sure it is a meaningful conversation.  And, why not make it about food…

Berlin Sign

Fermented Shark: Bucket list item checked off!

Fermented Shark: Bucket list item checked off!

Bucket list complete = fermented shark consumed in Iceland

Airfield Estate Festival of Food: Cultured Butter Demonstration

Airfield Estate Festival of Food: Cultured Butter Demonstration

Using cultured butter to connect people with a traditional food processing technology in a meaningful and powerful manner along with Roundstone Bakery at Airfield's Festival of Food Event